New Zealand is an island nation on the Pacific Ocean’s west side. The North Island (Te Ika-a-Mui) and the South Island (Te Waipounamu) are the two main landmasses, with more than 700 smaller islands having a total size of 268,021 square kilometers (103,500 sq. mi). Across the Tasman Sea, New Zealand is roughly 2,000 kilometers (1,200 miles) east of Australia and 1,000 kilometers (600 miles) south of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Tectonic uplift and volcanic eruptions are responsible for the country’s diverse terrain and jagged mountain peaks, especially the Southern Alps. Wellington is the capital of New Zealand, whereas Auckland is the most populated city.